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Harar is located on the very Eastern part of the country and it was the historic sites of Ethiopia since about 1520. Harar is considered as the original cultivation center of the world famous coffee Arabica and the mild stimulant leaf called chat (cath edulis).

Both are lucrative export items, which provide the Ethiopian economy with substantial financial resources.
With its numerous mosques and shrines, Harar is considered as the 'fourth holy city of Islam' after Mecca, Medina and Jerusalem.It is also considered to be one of the holiest centers of Muslim learning in the Islamic world.

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The influence of the Arab merchants penetrated deeper into the eastern part of Ethiopia, Djibouti and Somalia, and formed a number of fast growing Muslim settlements.

One of these large settlements came into its formal existence as Harar, in 1520 AD, and became the capital city of the Adal State. The last Amir of Harar was defeated by Menilik, at the Battle of Chelenqo, and thereafter, Harar was incorporated into greater Ethiopia, which was then in the process of formation.

The occupation of Harer is considered as one of the major turning point for the success of Menilik against his rival powers, both internal and external.

One of Harar’s charms, this old wall, was built by the Adare tribes to protect themselves from athe aggression of the surrounding tribes. The haynamen live show of feeding the wild hayana on a mouth to mouth direful practice is Harar’s attraction.

House styles and internal decorations are Harraries Uniqueness.

The 19th C French poet Arthur Rembound house is one of the most preserved houses in town. Every Harrary house has on quite the same inside partitions and all are colorfully decorated with traditional utensils.

Jimma: 1860

Jimma was one of the strongest of the five autonomous Gibe kingdoms of the Oromo people.Like all other kingdoms of the surrounding peoples, Jimma was also incorporated into the central Christian Empire of Ethiopia.

Jimma had a long distance trade route that started from the coastal area and reached the ancient great Thursday market at Hirmata, with an attendance of 30,000.This route also enabled cultural interactions from Arabia, and made Jimma to be the learning center of Islam for western Ethiopia.

The frost-free environment of Jimma is perfect for growing a huge variety of foodstuffs, including grains, legumes and crops. Coffee got its name from Kaffa, the origin of Ethiopian coffee, and indeed the first home of all coffee of the world. These indigenous coffee plants are found wild before formal cultivation took place.Most of the coffee produced in the area reaches the coffee market through Jimma.

The palace of Aba Jifar
This palace together with its mosque and other buildings are situated in a small town called Jiren, 9 km north of Jimma. It is one of the major attractions.

It is said that the modern town of Jimma was fashioned after an Italian city, and was also called 'piccolo Roma' during the Italian invasion. A sizable Italian community was active in Jimma up to the early 1970s.